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Fibroid Embolization vs. Hysterectomy

A recent article published by the AJOG looked at the results of women with fibroids who had either a hysterectomy or UAE.

A commentary in the health section of the Reuters website talked about a recent study released by the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology (AJOG) which demonstrated comparable physical or mental quality of life rates reported when studying women who undergo either a hysterectomy or Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE), also known as Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE). Additionally, the study showed that more than 4 out of 5 women in both groups were very satisfied with the treatment they had received. This information proves as significant due to the fact that previous studies have suggested that hysterecomy may be optimal for women that want to fully and completely eradicate their fibroids; however, the results of this study suggest that embolization could be a worthwhile choice for many women, especially for those that do not want to bear a long recovery period and do want to keep their fertility options open.

The study released in AJOG followed about 150 women, most in their forties, who had uterine fibroids that hadn’t responded to medication. The women were divided up randomly – half got a hysterectomy, and the other half had UAE done.  After following this cohort of women for 5 years, the results yielded no significant difference in satisfaction of the procedure and both groups reported that their fibroids were either gone or improved.  Therefore, those women that treated their fibroids with UFE not only shared the same level of satisfaction with their procedure and the outcome, but they also had the advantage of a less invasive treatment with little risk of complication. The study further touted the effectiveness of UFE and its safe and effective approach to treatment for uterine fibroids, specifically when presented with traditional surgical options such as hysterectomy and myomectomy.

Dr. Jim Reekers, a radiologist at Amsterdam’s Academic Medical Center and one of the study’s authors, told Reuters Health , “Hysterectomies often keep a patient in the hospital for up to five or six days, and they won’t be totally back on their feet for more than a month…After embolization, women can leave the hospital in a day and be back at work within a week”.  He also included that the procedure can be “much more friendly to the patient”.  Still, Dr. Linda Bradley, the vice chair of obstetrics and gynecology at the Cleveland Clinic, shares that the type of treatment needed can often depend on factors such as the patient’s symptoms and the location of the fibroids.  This being said, she states that patients should be open about what they want and doctors have to be honest about the treatment options they provide for their patients.

SOURCE: http://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378(10)00079-7/abstract

 

Uterine Artery Embolization for Fibroids Found Good Alternative to Hysterectomy

By Judith Groch
Feb 26, 2008

Researchers of the Dutch Multicenter Randomized Embolization vs. Hysterectomy trial found that embolization is a good alternative to hysterectomy, and 90% of all patients were at least moderately satisfied with their treatment. They wrote that patients who want “absolute certainty” may prefer a hysterectomy, but women who want a faster recovery and to keep their uterus, embolization is preferred. 177 women were assigned to embolization or hysterectomy to treat fibroids and outcomes were measured over 24 months using quality-of-life questionnaires.

Med Page Today Fibroid Article

 

MSNBC Hysterectomy Unnecessary

By Jennifer Bihm

There is a safer, easier alternative to hysterectomy in the treatment of fibroids according to specialist Dr. Bruce McLucas founder of the UCLA- based Fibroid Treatment Collective. Emboliza-tion, a procedure that essentially involves “choking” off the blood supply to the fibroids, is performed by inserting small pellets through the arteries. Unfortunately, according to health reports, “Too many African American and other women of color, do not know about uterine fibroid embolization.

This is an important revolution in fibroid treatments, but many women do not have access to state of the art or alternative treatments that avoid hysterectomy. They may not be told about embolization because their doctor does not know how to perform it, but rather, is more skilled as a surgeon…

Fibroid tumors are benign (non-cancerous) growths. They appear on the muscular wall of the uterus. They range in size from microscopic to masses that fill the entire abdominal cavity. Fibroids consist of dense, fibrous tissue, which are nourished and sustained by a series of blood vessels.

Common symptoms include pelvic pain excessive bleeding abdominal swelling, pressure on the bowel or bladder and infertility. Fibroids affect 40 percent of all women in America and have a high rate of incidence among African Americans. There is a possible link between uterine fibroid tumors and estrogen production, McLucas said.

Myomectomy and commonly hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) are common treatments.

“But,” McLucas pointed out, [With hysterectomy] you’re really throwing out the baby with the bath water. There’s really never any reason to remove the uterus.”

In fact, removal of the uterus can have several negative side effects. These include: surgically-induced menopause, decreased ovarian function, including the production of progesterone and for premenopausal women, having a complete hysterectomy will result in changes in hormonal balance since the ovaries are no longer able to provide any hormone production.

“Most women come to us because they want to keep their uterus,” McLucas said.

“They say to me, ‘I want to be whole.’”

Uterine fibroid embolization is an outpatient procedure, resulting in less time off work, no blood loss, no risk of hepatitis or AIDS and no scar tissue. And, unlike myomectomy, a procedure that also saves the uterus by surgically removing fibroids, there is no risk of recurrence.

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Hysterectomy Still Main Tumor Option

A new survey shows that fewer than half of women afflicted with uterine fibroid tumors are being informed by their gynecologists of a minimally invasive alternative to hysterectomy, the most common treatment for the condition.

The survey, to be released tomorrow, was conducted on behalf of BioSphere Medical Inc., a Rockland, Mass., company that makes products used in that alternative, which is called uterine artery embolization, or UAE. The procedure typically involves placing blood-stopping particles in the artery that feeds the fibroid tumors, which are painful and cause excess bleeding.

The survey, conducted by the National Women’s Health Resource Center, could exacerbate tensions between interventional radiologists — who perform UAE — and gynecologists, who perform hysterectomies. Because nearly all cases of uterine fibroid tumors are referred to or diagnosed by gynecologists, some women never hear about the UAE option. The survey found 40% of women diagnosed with fibroid tumors were told by their gynecologists about the less invasive procedure. Nearly 58% of women were told about hysterectomy.

The Wall Street Journal published a page-one story in 2004 about hysterectomy patients failing to hear about UAE. Since then, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice chose to undergo the procedure, giving it enormous attention. “Women recognized that someone who is an independent, free-thinking person could look at all other choices, and make that choice and do well by it,” says Dr. James Spies, an interventional radiologist at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists began offering information about UAE in its pamphlets that describe treatment options for fibroids.

Some interventional radiologists have said the new survey is evidence that gynecologists are still failing to tell their patients about the procedure. They say thousands of women a year are continuing to undergo unnecessary hysterectomies. The 40% figure reported in the survey is “still way too low given the fact that [UAE] is a mainstream therapy,” says Dr. Robert Vogelzang, an interventional radiologist at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. “The only conclusion to make is my colleagues in gynecology simply don’t want the word out, and that’s because they don’t do the procedure.”

Gynecologists dispute the allegation that they withhold information regarding UAE to retain their patient’s business. “Most people want patients to get what is best for them,” says Dr. Howard Sharp, a gynecologist from the University of Utah and a member of ACOG.

Still, ACOG, the organization that sets standards for gynecologists nationwide, maintains a conservative view on UAE, saying the procedure provides only short-term relief for fibroid-related symptoms, and is considered “investigational” for women who want to retain their fertility. Dr. Spies says that opinion is “too simplistic and out of date.” A five-year study, published in Obstetrics & Gynecology and co-authored by Dr. Spies, shows 75% of women who underwent UAE had long-term success with the procedure. While Dr. Spies says that he doesn’t routinely recommend UAE for women wishing to retain their fertility, he says there are circumstances when UAE may be suitable for those women, specifically times when prior surgical attempts — such as myomectomy — have been unsuccessful in removing fibroids.

Fibroids are the number one indication for hysterectomy. Of the 600,000 hysterectomies performed every year, about a third of the uterine-removing surgeries are performed to treat fibroids. Hysterectomy requires general anesthesia and a cut into the abdomen. The recovery time is normally about two to six weeks. UAE requires local anesthesia and involves making a small incision in the groin to allow a catheter to be threaded into the artery. Typically no overnight stay at the hospital is required for UAE, and recovery time is less than one week on average.

As more nonsurgical options become available to women, hysterectomy could become less popular. In addition to UAE, there are other options including a focused ultrasound treatment, which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2004. There are progesterone-modulating drugs in clinical trials that could be effective treatment options that shrink the fibroid. One drug — AsoPrisnil of TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc. — is pending FDA approval.

“I think hysterectomies are going to be on the decline — and they should be,” says Dr. Sharp. “If you can offer a less-invasive technology that is effective, that’s a huge advantage.”

 

Alternatives to Hysterectomy

Alternatives to Hysterectomy

Despite a decades-old debate over its medical necessity, hysterectomy is still the most common non-obstetrical major surgery performed on women in the United States. By the time a woman reaches age 60, the chances are about 1 in 3 that she will have had her uterus removed, and possibly her ovaries as well, in order to remedy some gynecological condition, such as fibroids, uterine cancer, endometriosis, or troublesome uterine bleeding. The prevalence of the procedure has fallen about 20% in the last quarter century, thanks in part to the growing availability and awareness of alternative fibroid treatment options. However, the rate of hysterectomy varies by geographic region, as well as by a woman’s age, level of education, and insurance coverage. Nonetheless, studies suggest that when appropriate, hysterectomy can substantially improve a woman’s quality of life. Hysterectomy removes either the entire uterus (total, or simple, hysterectomy) or the uterus above the cervix (supracervical hysterectomy). Either type may include a salpingo-oophorectomy, meaning that the ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed as well. Any hysterectomy means the end of childbearing, and the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes causes the onset of menopause and loss of ovarian estrogen and androgen.

The long-term effects of ovary removal include an increased risk of osteoporosis and heart disease, hot flashes, vaginal dryness, decline in muscle mass, and decreased sexual desire. Some studies suggest that even when the ovaries are preserved, women who have had a hysterectomy may experience earlier menopause.

Before undergoing a hysterectomy, a woman needs to give considerable thought to its psychological as well as medical ramifications. What would the loss of the uterus or ovaries, or both, mean? Would an alternative treatment be better? For the most part, hysterectomy is necessary only for life-threatening conditions, such as cancer, uncontrollable bleeding, or an obstetrical emergency, or for severe uterine prolapse. In many other circumstances, hysterectomy is not the only option, nor should it necessarily be the first one considered.

THE MOST COMMON INDICATION:
Fibroids Benign tumors, or fibroids, are the reason for about one-third of all hysterectomies. Fibroids, also called leiomyomas or myomas, are rubbery nodules that begin as irregular cells in the muscular layers of the uterus. They develop slowly into bundles of smooth muscle and fibrous tissue that may grow to the size of a walnut or an orange. Fibroids affect 25% of women in their 30s and 40s, and they are diagnosed in African-American women two to three times more often than in Caucasian women. Although most fibroids cause no symptoms and require no treatment, some women with the condition experience excessive bleeding and discomfort in the pelvic area. When fibroids cause bleeding, they usually cause clots. The size and location of fibroids determine how much trouble they cause. Large fibroids can distend the abdomen and push against the bowel or bladder, causing constipation or frequent urination. A fibroid can interfere with pregnancy, or it may press against the pelvic nerves, causing chronic leg or pelvic pain. Most commonly, fibroids are responsible for menorrhagia, or heavy menstrual bleeding.

Although the ultimate cause of fibroids is not known, they are related to rising estrogen levels. For example, both pregnancy and hormone replacement therapy can spur fibroid growth. Fibroids are seldom found in young women who have not begun to menstruate, and they often shrink in postmenopausal women. Alterations in DNA may also have something to do with fibroid development.

Drug Therapy

Medical management is usually the first approach to fibroids. This may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or drugs such as birth control pills or progestins to manipulate hormone levels. One commonly used type of medication is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Drugs like leuprolide (Lupron), goserelin (Zoladex), and nafarelin (Synarel) turn off estrogen and progesterone, shrinking fibroids, but also stopping menstruation and triggering menopausal symptoms. Because of their side effects, which include decreased bone density, GnRH agonists can be given for only a few months, and fibroids often return to their previous size. Long-term treatment with GnRH can also be expensive. This approach may be a good choice for women who are close to menopause and thus will need to use the drug for only a short while. GnRH agonists may also be prescribed to shrink fibroids before surgery (see sidebar below: “A Word About GnRH Agonists”).

Myomectomy

There are several approaches to the surgical fibroid removal. The standard procedure, which is performed under general anesthesia, involves removing each fibroid individually through an abdominal incision. A myomectomy to remove fibroids within the uterine cavity may be done through the vagina under local or general anesthesia, using a fiberoptic device called a hysteroscope. The hysteroscope enters the uterus through the cervix.

A myomectomy may also be done laparoscopically. A laparoscope is a device that allows the surgeon to view the patient’s pelvic organs. It is inserted into the abdomen through one of several small incisions, along with additional instruments needed to remove the fibroid(s) and repair the uterine wall. Myomectomy is the traditional treatment for women who want to preserve their fertility.

Laparoscopic myolysis

This procedure is similar to a laparoscopic myomectomy except that instead of removing the fibroid, the surgeon cauterizes it with a needle. Surgeons may use this technique when a fibroid is near a major blood vessel.

Uterine artery embolization (UAE)

This minimally invasive procedure has been used for more than two decades to treat postpartum and other traumatic pelvic bleeding but only recently for treating fibroids. This alternative fibroid treatment shrinks fibroids by cutting off their blood supply. The patient is put under mild sedation and local anesthesia, and the surgeon threads a catheter from the groin up into the uterine artery. X-rays are made while a contrast dye is injected, giving the surgeon a view of the blood vessels supplying fibroids and the uterus. An embolism agent (usually polyvinyl alcohol or FVA, particles) is then slowly pumped into the artery to block blood flow to the fibroid.

Short-term studies have found that fibroids treated by this method shrink an average of 48%-78%. Long-term controlled studies are needed to assess the procedure’s risks, its performance against other uterine conserving surgical approaches, its impact on fertility, and the long-term effects of FVA. For instance, in one center performing UAE, 15% of patients had to be re-hospitalized for “post-embolization syndrome” – fever, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Hysterectomy may be required in cases of severe post-embolization syndrome. Uterine Fibroid Embolization is not yet widely available and may not be covered by insurance.

Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy may be considered when fibroids are a source of pain, pressure, or bleeding so severe that they interfere with daily life or cause severe anemia. However, if you are told that you need a hysterectomy, you should get a second opinion (which, in any case, is often required for insurance coverage). There are many surgical options as well as varying degrees of invasiveness. Explore the possibilities thoroughly with your clinician or surgeon.

WHEN ENDOMETRIOSIS IS THE PROBLEM

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a chronic condition in which bits of tissue from the uterine lining become displaced and implant themselves in the abdomen outside the uterus, causing inflammation, pelvic pain, severe menstrual cramps, pain during intercourse, infertility, and irregular bleeding. Endometrial tissue implanted outside the uterus responds to the menstrual cycle the same way the endometrium does: it breaks apart and bleeds at the end of the cycle. But outside the uterus, the blood has no outlet, so it causes swelling in the surrounding areas. The resulting inflammation can produce scar tissue.

Endometriosis is the second most common reason for a hysterectomy. In this case, the ovaries are almost always removed as well, to stop the production of estrogen. But there are many other options to try first.

Drug therapy

Pain from endometriosis may be relieved with medications such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) or, for severe pain, codeine. Other drug treatment is aimed at disrupting hormones that govern the menstrual cycle and may be most effective when the tissue implants are small. Options include birth-control pills; progestins like Depo-Provera; danazol (Danocrine), a weak synthetic male hormone; and GnRH agonists.

Consentative surgery

Laparoscopic surgery, in which endometrial implants are cauterized or vaporized, is often effective, although endometriosis can recur. This treatment is indicated only if the surgeon can see the pelvic structures clearly through the laparoscope. Experimental procedures that disrupt pain signals between the sacral nerves and the brain are under study.

Hysterectomy

If the fibroid symptoms can’t be controlled with drugs or conservative measures, or when symptoms are caused by a related condition called adenomyosis (in which the endometrial tissue is embedded at several locations within the uterine wall), a hysterectomy may be advised.

OTHER CONDITIONS
Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) that can’t be attributed to fibroids, endometriosis, or infection often occurs in women who are close to menopause or in younger women who have irregular periods. Menorrhagia is more annoying than it is painful, but it sometimes disrupts the quality of women’s lives enough for them to seek hysterectomies. Less invasive treatments are available and should be considered first. For some women, low-dose estrogen birth control pills or progestin-only agents offer considerable relief. At the one-year follow-up of a new study comparing a Ievonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device to hysterectomy, researchers found that for menorrhagia, the IUD was just as effective and cost a lot less.

Enciomefrial ablation may also relieve heavy menstrual bleeding, but it stops menstruation and results in infertility, and it may have other long-term effects that are not yet known. Instruments inserted through the vagina and cervix into the uterine cavity use electrocauterization or laser energy to destroy the uterine lining, or endometrium. A technique recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration involves inserting a balloon into the uterus and filling it with a heated fluid to destroy the uterine lining. Two newer approaches are under study; one uses microwave energy and the other destroys tissue by treating it with a light-sensitive compound followed by photoactivation.

Some women undergo a hysterectomy because of uterine prolapse. The cumulative toll of age and childbearing may weaken the pelvic muscles and ligaments supporting the uterus, causing it to drop, press against the bladder, and even protrude into the vagina. If prolapse isn’t too advanced, Kegel exercises can help strengthen the pelvic muscles, or a pessary may be inserted to support the uterus (see KWHW March 2001, pp. 5-7). There are also surgical procedures less extensive than hysterectomy that tighten the supporting ligaments without removing the uterus. However, when prolapse is severe, a vaginal hysterectomy may be recommended (see HWHI/V November 2000, p. 8).

A Word About GnRH Agonists

GnRH agonists can shrink fibroids and reduce endometrial thickness. Speak with your clinician or surgeon about the advisability of taking a GnAH agonist before having a surgical procedure. A course of treatment for a few months might eliminate the need for hysterectomy for endometriosis, fibroids, or abnormal bleeding, or it might permit the use of less invasive procedures. For women facing hysterectomy, this could mean:

  • vaginal rather than abdominal surgery
  • laparoscopic rather than abdominal surgery
  • endometrial ablation rather than hysterectomy
  • myomectomy or myolysis rather than hysterectom

As an educational service, members of the FTC provide questions and answers regarding fibroids. Feel free to ask one of our fibroid specialist about alternative fibroid treatment such as fibroid embolization. Please note that the questions and answers are not medical advice and there is no substitute for diagnosis and, where appropriate, treatment by a qualified and licensed physician of your own choosing.

 

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